A measure of time and scale of disease that is characterized by a sudden onset and typically a short period of illness (opposite of chronic)
An uncontrollable, often allergic breathing disorder that causes muscles in the airways of your lungs to tighten. This results in wheezing, coughing, and tightness in the chest
Microscopic, single-celled organisms that thrive in diverse environments. These organisms can live in soil, the ocean, and inside the human gut
Airways that bring air into the lungs
A disease in which there is permanent enlargement of parts of the airways of the lung. Symptoms typically include chronic cough with mucus production. Other symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing up blood, and chest pain
Chest CT scan
[chest] [skan]
An X-ray image of the chest taken with a scanner
Continuing over a long amount of time or recurring frequently (opposite of acute)
Chronic respiratory failure
[kron-ik] [res-per-uh-tawr-ee] [fālyər]
When the lungs are no longer able to exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide from the bloodstream fast enough for the body’s needs
Clearance techniques
[kleer-uh ns] [tɛk-niks]
Various techniques that break up mucus, prevent it from building up, and allow for it to be cleared easily
(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
[kron-ik] [uhb-struhkt-iv] [puhl-muh-ner-ee] [dih-zeez]
A lung disease that leads to poor breathing. COPD is a term that is used to include chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or a combination of both
[dahy-i-tish-uh n]
A person who is an expert in nutrition
A sudden outbreak of symptoms
Simple organisms that are neither plants nor animals. Some common examples are mushrooms and molds
A small area of inflammatory cells within the body (most often the lungs) that surround a foreign body, such as bacteria, and try to eliminate it
Infectious disease (ID) specialist
[in-fek-shuhs] [dih-zeez]
A medical expert who focuses on diseases resulting from the presence of an infection
Redness, swelling, pain, tenderness, and heat in an area of the body
Lung cavity
[luhng] [ka-vah-tee]
An abnormal, empty, non-functional space within the lung visible on CT scan
Lung resection
[luhng] [re-sek-shun]
A type of surgery used to diagnose and treat lung disorders. Surgeons can remove all or part of the lung
M abscessus
(Mycobacterium abscessus)
[mahy-koh-bak-teer-ee-uhm] [ab-sess-ess]
A species of NTM
(Mycobacterium avium complex)
[mahy-koh-bak-teer-ee-uhm] [ey-vee-uhm] [kom-pleks]
The most common species of NTM bacteria found in the water and soil that can cause MAC lung disease
MAC (Mycobacterium avium
complex) lung disease
[mahy-koh-bak-teer-ee-uhm] [ey-vee-uhm] [kom-pleks] [luhng] [dih-zeez]
The most common form of NTM lung disease, this type of noncontagious infection can cause serious damage to the lungs if left untreated
A type of white blood cell that helps eliminate foreign substances by surrounding foreign materials and initiating an immune response
M kansasii
(Mycobacterium kansasii)
[mahy-koh-bak-teer-ee-uhm] [can-zays-ee-eye]
A species of NTM
M malmoense
(Mycobacterium malmoense)
[mahy-koh-bak-teer-ee-uhm] [mal-mow-ense]
A species of NTM
M szulgai
(Mycobacterium szulgai)
[mahy-koh-bak-teer-ee-uhm] [sool-guy]
A species of NTM
M xenopi
(Mycobacterium xenopi)
[mahy-koh-bak-teer-ee-uhm] [zen-no-pie]
A species of NTM
A slimy mixture that is produced by glands lining your nose and throat. It also protects and lubricates surfaces in your body
Multidrug therapy
[muhl-tee-druhg] [ther-uh-pee]
A group of more than one drug used to treat a condition
An abnormal growth in the lungs that occurs when a clump of immune cells (granuloma) calcifies or hardens over time
NTM (Nontuberculous mycobacteria)
[nohn-too-bur-kyuh-luh s] [mahy-koh-bak-teer-ee-uh]
A type of bacteria found in the environment like the soil and water that can cause lung infections in some individuals
NTM (Nontuberculous mycobacterial) lung disease
[nohn-too-bur-kyuh-luh s] [mahy-koh-bak-teer-ee l] [luhng] [dih-zeez]
NTM lung disease is an infection that occurs in your lungs. The infection is caused by bacteria that are common in the environment
An organism that lives on or in an organism of another species
A medical specialist who diagnoses and treats lung diseases
Relating to the system that brings oxygen into the body and releases carbon dioxide
Resistance occurs when bacteria change and evolve to the point that they are no longer affected by treatment. The bacteria survive and continue to multiply, causing more harm
Severe or chronic pneumonia
[suh-veer] [kron-ik] [noo-mohn-yuh]
Infection in the lungs with inflammation and congestion that lasts for a long time
A doctor who devotes attention to a particular class of disease or patient
A common type of lung function test in which a patient blows into a tube connected to a machine called a spirometer. By measuring the flow of air through the lungs and the amount of air in the lungs, a spirometry test helps to inform a healthcare provider how strong a patient’s lungs are
Sputum culture
[spyoo-tuhm] [kuhl-cher]
A test for infection that requires mucus (phlegm) to be spit up from the lungs and mouth
Supplemental oxygen
[suh-pluh-men-tahl] [ahks-i-jen]
Also called oxygen therapy, this is additional oxygen supplied through a mask attached to a mechanical device or portable tank to assist people who have a low blood oxygen level
A contagious disease that may affect almost any tissue of the body, especially the lungs
A mechanized device that enables the delivery or movement of air and oxygen into the lungs of a patient whose breathing has ceased, is failing, or is inadequate